The nature of the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, along with an all-volunteer military, has led to multiple and extended deployments for active-duty, reserve, and National Guard troops. One of the invisible effects of war is the impact of prolonged deployments on the well-being of children in military families. Until now, there has not been a comprehensive study of sufficient size to fully examine the effects of parental deployment on older children.
The first results from a large, longitudinal study finds that children from military families experience significant emotional and behavioral problems when a parent is deployed overseas. (The full text of the Pediatrics article is available here for free.) The Rand Corporation study includes families from all branches of the military. Fifteen-hundred children ages 11 to 17 and their non-deployed parents are to be surveyed three times over the course of one year. Nearly all the children (95%) had experienced at least one parental deployment over the past three years and nearly 40% percent had a parent deployed at the time of the interview.
All the families were recruited from those who applied for the National Military Family Association's Operation Purple camp--a free program held for children of military service members at 63 sites across the country. The mission of the Operation Purple Camp is to help children cope with the stress of war and a parent's deployment.
Some findings from the study:
- Compared to children in the civilian population, the military children reported higher rates of emotional and behavioral problems.
- Older teens, and girls of all ages, reported significantly more problems at home, school, and with peers.
- The longer a parent was deployed, the greater the problems experienced by a child.
- The children of non-deployed caretakers with mental health problems had greater difficulties.
- Children who did not live on a military base while their parent was gone also experienced more problems.
- No significant differences were found between the service branches or between active-duty (63%)and Reserve/Guard families (37%).
- The study may not be representative of all military families because it included only those who applied to the Operation Purple Camp program.
- Marine families were under-represented.
- There were few families that had deployed mothers and caretaker fathers.
- There were fewer families from the lower enlisted ranks.
New stressors may emerge when the deployed parent returns home. Family role changes during the parent's absence need to be renegotiated. Families are affected when a service member suffers from head trauma, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), or depression as a result of their combat experiences. Marital problems, domestic violence, and child abuse becomes more common. The return may be temporary with little time as a family before the parent starts preparing for re-deployment.
When military parents are involved in a war or conflict long-term, so too are their families. The accumulated stress of multiple deployments takes its' toll on children's resiliency. Fortunately, the growing recognition of the effects of war on military children has led to more resources to address their needs. Here are a few:
Deployment - from the National Military Family Association
Helping Kids Deal with Deployment - from afterdeployment
Operation Healthy Reunions - from Mental Health America
Returning from the War Zone: A Guide for Families of Military Personnel - from the National Center for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
Chandra, A., Lara-Cinisomo, S., Jaycox, L., Tanielian, T., Burns, R., Ruder, T., & Han, B. (2009). Children on the Homefront: The Experience of Children From Military Families PEDIATRICS, 125 (1), 16-25 DOI: 10.1542/peds.2009-1180